Sarmizegetusa Regia, Transylvania, Romania
> The ruins of the old capital of the Dacians, built in the 1st century BC.
> Dacians were first documented 2.500 years ago and their civilization ended in the year 106 AD.
> Sarmizegetusa is located at 1.200m altitude surrounded by beautiful mountains.
You can see the last remainings of an ancient civilization - that lasted for hundreds of years before the Romans conquered the area - located in Sarmizegetusa and around. The fortress was the most important Dacian military, religious and political centre. Erected on top of a 1,200 meters high mountain , the fortress was the core of the strategic defensive system in the Orastie Mountains (in present-day Romania), comprising six citadels. Six Dacian fortresses — Sarmizegetusa, Blidaru, Piatra Rosie, Costesti, Capalna and Banita - that were a part of the defensive system of Decebalus are UNESCO World heritage sites.
In ancient geography, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians, while its territory is overlapping with Romania of today. They are the earliest people from the present territory of Romania. Dacians was a large tribe who were most influenced by the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The latter eventually conquered, and linguistically and culturally assimilated the Dacians (the reason for the current name of the area, Romania). A Dacian Kingdom of variable size existed between 82 B.C. until the Roman conquest in 106 A.D. The capital of Dacia, Sarmizegetusa, located in modern Romania, was destroyed by the Romans.
The Dacians developed Murus Dacicus, a construction method for defence walls and fortifications developed in ancient Dacia before the Roman conquest. It is a mix between traditional construction methods particular to Dacian builders and methods imported from Greek and Roman architecture and masonry. The typicall wall was about 3-4 meters thick and 10 m tall, an outstanding achievement of those times.
A quadrilateral formed by massive stone blocks (murus dacicus), was constructed on five terraces, on an area of almost 30,000 m². Sarmizegetusa also had a sacred precinct—among the most important and largest circular and rectangular Dacian sanctuaries the famous Circular Calendar Sanctuary is included. The civilians lived around the fortress, down the mountain on man-made terraces. Dacian nobility had flowing water, brought through ceramic pipes, in their residences. The archaeological inventory found at the site shows that Dacian society had a high standard of living.
The Dacian capital reached its acme under King Decebal who fought two wars against the Emperor Trajan of the Roman Empire in 101-102, the first successfully repelling the Roman invaders, and again in 105-106, the second culminating in the Battle of Sarmisegetusa, and the defeat of the Dacians. The Roman conquerors established a military garrison there. Later, the capital of Roman Dacia was named after the Dacian capital - Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa, established 40 km from the ruined Dacian capital.